Tuesday, 3 October 2017

Can a Pope Teach Heresy in his Ordinary Magiserium?


"And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven." (Matt 16:18-19)


In the wake of the publication of the Filial Correction on 24th September, 2017, many Catholics have been left in a state of deep confusion as to whether a validly elected Roman Pontiff can teach heresy as part of his Ordinary Magisterium. The Ordinary Magisterium is found in the day to day teachings of the Holy Father, issued through various encyclicals, apostolic constitutions, apostolic exhortations, etc., and although this particular exercise of the papal office is fallible in nature, and certain deficiencies may be present, all Catholics are bound to give their religious assent (the submission of will and intellect) to whatever is contained in the Ordinary Magisterium. This is distinct from the more binding assent of faith which is required for infallible pronouncements such as dogmas, or the contents of Sacred Scripture. As the Catechism states, there is a special Divine assistance given which protects the pope from teaching any errors which contradict faith or morals in the Ordinary Magisterium itself - a charism which is to be considered quite separately from the doctrine of papal infallibility, which is only very rarely exercised through ex cathedra pronouncements, or through the solemn definitions of ecumenical councils, etc. As the Catechism states:

Divine assistance is also given to the successors of the apostles, teaching in communion with the successor of Peter, and, in a particular way, to the bishop of Rome, pastor of the whole Church, when, without arriving at an infallible definition and without pronouncing in a "definitive manner," they propose in the exercise of the ordinary Magisterium a teaching that leads to better understanding of Revelation in matters of faith and morals. To this ordinary teaching the faithful "are to adhere to it with religious assent" which, though distinct from the assent of faith, is nonetheless an extension of it. (CCC 892)

One must therefore take into account the proper character of every exercise of the Magisterium, considering the extent to which its authority is engaged. It is also to be borne in mind that all acts of the Magisterium derive from the same source, that is, from Christ who desires that His People walk in the entire truth. For this same reason, magisterial decisions in matters of discipline, even if they are not guaranteed by the charism of infallibility, are not without divine assistance and call for the adherence of the faithful. (Donum Veritatis 17)

So while there may be certain deficiencies present in the Ordinary Magisterium, the faithful are still required to submit their will and intellect to its higher prudential judgment by giving religious assent, and such deficiencies can never fall into error in matters of faith and morals through the promise of Divine assistance accorded to even these non-infallible pronouncements. As Lumen Gentium 25 states:

This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra; that is, it must be shown in such a way that his supreme magisterium is acknowledged with reverence, the judgments made by him are sincerely adhered to, according to his manifest mind and will. His mind and will in the matter may be known either from the character of the documents, from his frequent repetition of the same doctrine, or from his manner of speaking.

In the CDF document Donum Veritatis, a special dispensation is given for trained theologians to withhold their religious assent from certain aspects of the Ordinary Magisterium they perceive to be potentially problematic, so that they can bring their findings and objections before the Magisterium for study and reflection. However, Donum Veritatis states that such non-assent should always be conducted privately, so as not to lead the faithful into confusion, and any dissenting theologians are instructed to avoid presenting their objections before the mass media:

"In cases like these, the theologian should avoid turning to the "mass media", but have recourse to the responsible authority, for it is not by seeking to exert the pressure of public opinion that one contributes to the clarification of doctrinal issues and renders servite to the truth."
(Donum Veritatis 30)

So since the authors of the Filial Correction have turned directly to the mass media in order to present their dissent to Amoris Laetitia (which is part of the Ordinary Magisterium of Pope Francis), this action was made in direct contravention of the guidelines for dissenting theologians outlaid in Donum Veritatis, and should therefore be considered illicit.

In banding together to form a "parallel-magisterium" which aims to "correct" the Ordinary Magisterium of Pope Francis, the authors of the Filial Correction have brought about a great source of confusion and harm to the faithful.

As to the "parallel magisterium", it can cause great spiritual harm by opposing itself to the Magisterium of the Pastors. Indeed, when dissent succeeds in extending its influence to the point of shaping; a common opinion, it tends to become the rule of conduct. This cannot but seriously trouble the People of God and lead to contempt for true authority. (Donum Veritatis 34)

Polling public opinion to determine the proper thing to think or do, opposing the Magisterium by exerting the pressure of public opinion, making the excuse of a "consensus" among theologians, maintaining that the theologian is the prophetical spokesman of a "base" or autonomous community which would be the source of all truth, all this indicates a grave loss of the sense of truth and of the sense of the Church. The Church "is like a sacrament, a sign and instrument, that is, of communion with God and of unity among all men". Consequently, to pursue concord and communion is to enhance the force of her witness and credibility. To succumb to the temptation of dissent, on the other hand, is to allow the "leaven of infidelity to the Holy Spirit" to start to work. (Donum Veritatis 39-40)

This false accusation railed against Pope Francis, claiming that he is teaching  or promoting heresy in part of his Ordinary Magisterium is in effect a denial of the one of the essential truths behind the teaching authority of the Roman Pontiff, who is granted Divine assistance which prevents him from erring in matters of faith and morals, even when teaching non-infallibly. If we are to reject this essential truth, then the entire edifice of Catholic theology comes crashing to the ground. Once broken down to its constitute parts, this false accusation amounts to nothing less than a charge of formal heresy against the Pope himself, and cannot be recognized as anything other than an attempt to precipitate some form of schism within the Church, renting apart the seamless garment of Christ.

Lest we forget: "The First See is judged by no one." (Canon 1404)

Sunday, 1 October 2017

Vindication on Nineveh Eclipses Theory



I've finally been given proper credit for discovering the links between the Bur Sagale eclipse of 763BC, and the total solar eclipses which formed a cross over the site of ancient Nineveh at either end of the period of the unbinding of Satan/prophecy of Pope Leo XIII, on 21st August 1914, and 11th August 1999. See the YouTube video above. It was Pastor Steve Cioccolanti whose video on this subject went viral just before the Great American Solar Eclipse, and whose video was recommended by Anne Graham Lotz, the daughter of world famous preacher Billy Graham (see here). Pastor Steve Cioccolanti proposes that the real reason Pastor Mark Biltz did not give me credit for this discovery was because I am Catholic. Perhaps he thought that if his audience discovered that this idea came from a Catholic source, it would instantly lose credibility, and subsequently be overlooked. So, perhaps his motives were more well-intentioned, and he main concern was in getting the message out there that the timing of the Great American Solar Eclipse appeared to suggest that some form of threat was looming over the nation, and that its people needed to be brought to repentance.

Given the series of natural disasters which took place during the 40-day period from the eclipse to the date of Yom Kippur/Michaelmas (many centred on apparition sites, or places with Catholic themes), combined with the sudden spike in tensions in the North Korean Nuclear Crisis, it seems undeniable that some form of warning was being given to humanity. This is quite likely the closest point the world has come to seeing nuclear conflict since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. As I observed in my original blog post on this subject The Sign of Jonah and the Binding of Satan, it seemed most likely outcome of the end of this 40-day period of repentance was when the world would once again be spared from the threat of nuclear war, when the hand of the angel with the flaming sword would be stayed for a period of penance.



Thursday, 28 September 2017

The Stigmatization of Pope Francis





On Sept 24th this year, an event took place which is unprecedented in Church history. A sitting pope has been accused of teaching heresy as part of his authentic magisterium in a "Filial Correction" signed by some 60 Catholic theologians, priests and bishops - which has subsequently risen to 146 as of the time of writing. This accusation has been railed against an Apostolic Exhortation no less - a document which is part of the papal magisterium. This accusation of heresy leaked out on the exact day that the much vaunted Rev 12 sign appeared in the skies on the centenary year of Our Lady of Fatima, 33 days after the occurrence of the Great American Solar Eclipse, which marked the start of a forty day countdown to Yom Kippur, coinciding with St. Michael's Lent.

While the importance of this event has been overlooked or downplayed by many, if this course of action is allowed to be played out till the end of its intended path, it will no doubt be looked back upon as one of the most pivotal moments in the history of the modern Catholic Church. This is only the first stage in a multi-step process involving an audacious attempt to depose Pope Francis from the Holy See either through the convocation of an "imperfect council" (a general Church council without the pope as its head), or through some other alternative ad-hoc process which will ultimately result in a major schism in the Catholic Church. Given the incessant grumblings against Pope Francis since the publication of Amoris Laetitia, there has been much speculation of late across in some extreme elements of the Traditionalist movement about how a pope who teaches formal heresy as part of his papal magisterium would automatically excommunicate himself, leaving the Holy See sede vacante. Indeed, there have even been several conferences conducted on the theme of "how to remove an heretical pope" such as that at Paris in 2017 titled "Deposing the Pope: Theological Premises, Canonical Models, Constitutional Challenges," inspired by the recently published book by Laurent Fonbaustier. and several discussions have taken place online as to what this process would involve (see Robert J. Siscoe in The Remnant here).

During the Counter Reformation, there was some hypothetical scenarios discussed between several influential theologians, such as St. Robert Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, and Cajetan, about what would happen if a reigning pope were ever to teach formal heresy, and what the process would be in removing said pope from the Holy See. However, there was never any consensus reached on this topic, and there was never any canonical procedure developed for such a process. In light of the development of later Catholic theology on the nature of the papal charism concerning the protection of the pope from error in his ordinary non-infallible magisterium and the dogma of papal infallibility in the extraordinary and universal magisterium, it was considered non-essential, since the modern Catholic Church teaches that no pope can ever teach formal heresy as part of his magisterium.

In light of the upset that has been caused since the publication of Amoris Laetitia, which allows some divorced and remarried couples who are not able to obtain an annulment access to the Sacraments through the internal forum solution, some extreme Traditionalists are now convinced that Pope Francis is teaching outright heresy, and are now taking concrete steps to remove the Holy Father from the Peterine Office, by harking back to these hypothetical paradigms discussed by St. Bellarmine, Suárez, Cajetan et al. In light of Pope Francis' refusal to answer a series of dubia forwarded by Cardinals Burke, Caffarra, Brandmüller, and Meisner, Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke promised that there would be a forthcoming "fraternal correction" of Amoris Laetitia. A promise which appears to be intimately related to this recent Filial Correction.

It seems however that Cardinal Burke is merely biding his time for the next step in this process, and will use the full weight of his authority when he issues his own "Fraternal Correction". The end-game in this audacious initiative behind the Filial Correction appears to be in openly proclaiming that Pope Francis is a manifest and obdurate heretic and declare that he has incurred automatic excommunication, leaving the Holy See sede vacante. It seems likely that this group will then petition for as many dissenting cardinals and bishops as possible to join them, lobbying for a new conclave to be established to install an antipope in opposition to Pope Francis, inaugurating a full-scale schism within the Catholic Church, the likes of which has not been seen since the end of the Western Schism in 1417.

What we have witnessed here is the pawns being moved into place, reserving the key pieces for the next step in the process, which is to issue a "fraternal correction", leading to a declaration that Pope Francis a formal heretic, which could be form anywhere to six months to a year from now. While the Filial Correction appears to accuse Pope Francis of only espousing or promoting material heresy, such a position simply does not hold, when we consider the fact that Amoris Laetitia is part of the papal magisterium. Those who have promoted this Filial Correction have harked back to the correction of Pope John XXII. No such comparison can be made here though, in the fact that Pope John XXII only held to his heretical belief on the resurrection in a private capacity, and never attempted to formally teach this in his magisterium. This charge of heresy in Amoris Laetitia, however thinly veiled, is nothing short than an accusation of formal heresy, and the subsequent "removal" of Pope Francis from the Holy See is no doubt the next course of action for these audacious clerics.

As Robert J. Siscoe states:

We have seen that a canonical warning is required for a cleric to lose his office due to the crime of heresy. This aspect of canon law is derived from divine law, which teaches that a heretic should only be avoided, “after one or two warnings” (Titus 3:10). Since this precept of divine law does not permit of an exception, it applies equally to a heretical Pope. If a Pope were to remain hardened in heresy after being duly warning by the proper authorities, he would thereby manifest his pertinacity, and reveal that, of his own will, he had rejected the Faith.


It is simply remarkable that this Filial Correction was timed to exactly coincide with the feast day of St. Padre Pio during the course of St. Michael's Lent, when St. Francis of Assisi was physically impressed with the visible wounds of the stigmata, marking him out as the "angel of the sixth seal". Is this act of stigmatization the final confirmation that Pope Francis is indeed the Worthy Shepherd who has taken great lengths to feed his flock during this period of trial for the Church?

One from beyond the mountains shall become the Vicar Of God. Religious and clerics shall take part in this change. Outside the true path, there will be only disreputable men; I shrug my shoulders when the Bark of Peter is in danger and there is no one to lend it help... The schismatic shall fall into the scorn of the Italian faithful... By about twelve years shall the millennium have passed when the resplendent mantle of legitimate power shall emerge from the shadows where it was being kept by the schism. And beyond harm from the one who is blocking the door of salvation, for his deceitful schism shall have come to an end. And the mass of the faithful shall attach itself to the worthy Shepherd, who shall extricate each one from error and restore to the Church its beauty. He shall renew it."
(Miscellanea Francescana 1 p173)

Just as St. Padre Pio offered himself up as a victim for the end of the First World War, we can only hope and pray that Pope Francis will offer up this act of stigmatization as a means to save the world from its current threat of chastisement, just as the North Korean nuclear crisis now reaches its crescendo. This act of stigmatization is surely the Dragon standing under the Woman's feet intent on consuming the "male-child" just as he is born, by issuing a flood from its mouth to sweep the Woman away.

It is time to remain positive though, and hope that perhaps something good will come from all this mess we see in the Church today. Perhaps Cardinal Burke's true motivation is to pressurize the Holy Father into convoking an ecumenical council, in order to ensure that this matter is resolved through the infallible magisterium, sum Petro et Sub Petro. Perhaps such a council would be able to undo the great source of division that has entered the Church since the "Spirit of Vatican II" ensured the stripping of the altars and liturgical changes under Bugnini's reforms, by ensuring the full implementation of Sacrosanctum Concilium - the conciliar document on the Sacred Liturgy. Perhaps then we will finally see the filthy garments of the Church finally being removed, and replaced by those worthy of the Bride of the Lamb, as is indicated in the below prophecy of Zechariah, which takes place at the end of the period of Satan's greater power:

Then he showed me the high priest Joshua standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. And the Lord said to Satan, “The Lord rebuke you, O Satan! The Lord who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” Now Joshua was dressed with filthy clothes as he stood before the angel. The angel said to those who were standing before him, “Take off his filthy clothes.” And to him he said, “See, I have taken your guilt away from you, and I will clothe you with festal apparel.” And I said, “Let them put a clean turban on his head.” So they put a clean turban on his head and clothed him with the apparel; and the angel of the Lord was standing by. (Zech 3:1-5)

 

Friday, 22 September 2017

Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Flood from the Dragon's Mouth



With the recent sudden escalation of significant world events that have taken place since the occurrence of the Great American Solar eclipse on 21st, August, 2017, it should be obvious to anyone paying close enough attention to the "signs of the times" that we have indeed entered into a 40-day period of repentance associated with the appearance of the sign of Jonah. The Latin phrase motus in fine velocior (which means "things accelerate towards the end") has proven correct. When I first noted this pattern of solar eclipses concentrated upon the site of ancient Nineveh, and how this may potentially tie into the significance of the Great American Eclipse on the feast of Our Lady of Knock (see the post The Sign of Jonah and the Binding of Satan), I had no idea what to expect, or even if I was correct in making these connections. It was a surprise to me when other people started pointing out that 40 days after this event brought us up to the Jewish feast of Yom Kippur, and that this was preceded by a 40-day period of repentance in Jewish tradition connected with the Hebrew month of Elul. This was made all the more important in the fact that on this exact year Yom Kippur coincides with the feast of Michaelmas, which is also preceded by a 40-day period of fasting and prayer in Catholic tradition during St. Michael's Lent,  beginning on the Solemnity of the Assumption. Given the fact that the Jewish calendar is lunar based, while the Gregorian is solar, the coincidence of these feast days is a relatively rare event.

We have already noted that the Third Secret of Fatima itself alludes to the significance of the Jewish feast of Yom Kippur - when the blood of the sacrificial victim was sprinkled on the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant by the Jewish High Priest to atone for the sins of Israel. This was symbolised in its description of the two angels gathering up the blood of the martyrs and sprinkling it upon those making their own personal ascent of Calvary during the final Passover of the Church. So the combination of the Day of Atonement with the description of St. Michael with the flaming sword in the Third Secret appears to be of especial significance in regard to a year when the feasts of Yom Kippur and Michaelmas collide - which just so happens to take place during the centenary of Our Lady of Fatima.

In the extremely short window of time since the eclipse, a series of phenomena has unfolded in locations associated with distinctly Catholic themes, either in apparition sites or occurring over places bearing names of singular Catholic relevance. This was made in conjunction with a sudden massive spike in tensions between North Korea and the United States. Just nine minutes after the eclipse ended on American soil, a 4.2 magnitude earthquake occurred in Ischia, off the coast of Naples in Italy, where the blood of St. Janurius is housed in the local Cathedral. Ominously, the blood of St. Januarius had failed to miraculously liquefy in the ceremony conducted on December, 2016 - which is thought to portend some form of disaster localised around the area of Naples. As well as being the site of ongoing alleged Marian apparitions, Ischia was also the birth place of St. John Joseph of the Cross - an extraordinary wonder worker who lived and died in the monastery of St. Lucia in Naples, where his relics are still held. This bears some relevance in that the young martyr St. Lucia of Syracuse would go on to lend her name to one of the seers of Fatima, Sr. Lucia dos Santos.

Four days after the eclipse, the coast of Texas was battered by Hurricane Harvey, which made landfall on Corpus Christi as a category four storm, causing widespread destruction. We then had North Korea's hydrogen bomb test on Sept 4th, and ICBM tests flying over Japan. On 2nd September, an earthquake swarm began in Idaho centred on Soda Springs, just south of the caldera of the Yellowstone supervolcano. On 10th September, we then had Hurricane Irma bearing down on the coast of Florida as a Category four storm, leaving behind a trail of destruction throughout several islands in the Atlantic. A powerful geomagnetic storm took place on 6th September, 2017, leading to a widespread occurrence of the Northern Lights. Dozens of wildfires were also raging across several states in America. As the official NASA site noted on August 28th:

The United States is the middle of an unfortunate spate of natural disasters.  In Texas the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey is causing widespread flooding, and in the western United States just the opposite--dry conditions and extreme heat--are causing widespread forest fires. 
(See here)

All of this phenomena centred upon America - hurricanes, fires, earthquakes, etc. echoes the events which took place during the flight of the Prophet Elijah to Mount Horeb (Sinai) for forty days after the apostasy of ancient Israel during the reign of King Ahab and Jezebel:

The angel of the Lord came to him a second time. He touched him and said, “Get up and eat. Your journey will be long and hard.” So he got up. He ate and drank. The food gave him new strength. He traveled for 40 days and 40 nights. He kept going until he arrived at Horeb. It was the mountain of God. There he went into a cave and spent the night.
A message came to Elijah from the Lord. He said, “Elijah, what are you doing here?”
 He replied, “Lord God who rules over all, I’ve been very committed to you. The Israelites have turned their backs on your covenant. They have torn down your altars. They’ve put your prophets to death with their swords. I’m the only one left. And they are trying to kill me.”
 The Lord said, “Go out. Stand on the mountain in front of me. I am going to pass by.”
As the Lord approached, a very powerful wind tore the mountains apart. It broke up the rocks. But the Lord wasn’t in the wind. After the wind there was an earthquake. But the Lord wasn’t in the earthquake. After the earthquake a fire came. But the Lord wasn’t in the fire. And after the fire there was only a gentle whisper. When Elijah heard it, he pulled his coat over his face. He went out and stood at the entrance to the cave.
(IKings 19:7-13)

This in turn parallels the 40 days Moses spent on Mount Sinai following the idolatry of the Golden Calf, in order to make atonement for the sins of the Israelites - an event which is commemorated during the month of Elul.

On the next day Moses said to the people, “You have sinned a great sin. But now I will go up to the Lord; perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.” So Moses returned to the Lord and said, “Alas, this people has sinned a great sin; they have made for themselves gods of gold. But now, if you will only forgive their sin—but if not, blot me out of the book that you have written.” But the Lord said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me I will blot out of my book. But now go, lead the people to the place about which I have spoken to you; see, my angel shall go in front of you. Nevertheless, when the day comes for punishment, I will punish them for their sin.”
Then the Lord sent a plague on the people, because they made the calf—the one that Aaron made.
(Exod 32:30-35)

The Lord said to Moses: Write these words; in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel. He was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he neither ate bread nor drank water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. Moses came down from Mount Sinai. As he came down from the mountain with the two tablets of the covenant in his hand, Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because he had been talking with God. (Exod 34:27-29)

Just before the stroke of midnight on 7th September, 2017, a huge 8.2 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico in Oaxaca, a few hundred miles south of Mexico City. The capital itself had felt this tremor, and there were various sighting of earthquake lights around the city itself. Mexico City is home to the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, which was built upon the site of the famous apparitions on Tepayac Hill. Our Lady of Guadalupe is also honoured as the patroness of America and protectress of the unborn, since she had appeared to St. Juan Diego in 1531 in order to bring an end to the ritual of human sacrifice in the New World.

As the website Santa.org states:

We read in the Book of Leviticus how the Lord tells Moses about the serious crime of offering children to be immolated to Molech, referring to the Canaanite custom of sacrificing children to the god Molech. The little victims were first slain and then cremated. (Leviticus 20,1-5 and 18,21).

In the Americas, five centuries ago, cruel human sacrificing rituals were performed on a scale never approached, even remotely, by another peoples. Never before or after in human history a more open, long running, ritualized and institutionalized public showcase of the Culture of Death has been manifested...
(Read the full article here)

The practice of human sacrifice would not be manifested again in America until the legalisation of abortion in 1973.

On the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin on 8th September, 2017, just a few hours after the earthquake in Mexico on the 7th, a 5.2 magnitude earthquake struck the prefecture of Akita in Japan, which is the site of another Marian apparition which has been approved by the Catholic Church. Akita is significant in the fact that it occurred at time when America was in the midst of legalising abortion during the Roe vs Wade court action in 1973. Here, Our Lady issued one of the most stark warnings against humanity when the Christian West began to adopt laws that would ensure the slaughter of millions of innocent unborn children.

...if men do not repent and better themselves, the Father will inflict a terrible punishment on all humanity. It will be a punishment greater than the deluge, such as one will never have seen before. Fire will fall from the sky and will wipe out a great part of humanity...the good as well as the bad, sparing neither priests nor faithful. The survivors will find themselves so desolate that they will envy the dead. The only arms which will remain for you will be the Rosary and the Sign left by My Son.
(Our Lady of Akita to Sr. Agnes Sasagawa)

It is significant that the date of Michaelmas on 29th September crops up in the bleeding statue phenomena associated with Our Lady of Akita. As the EWTN webpage on Akita notes:

"The statue was carved from a single block of wood from a Katsura tree and is three feet tall. On the same day, a few of the sisters noticed drops of blood flowing from the statue's right hand. On four occasions, this act of blood flow repeated itself. The wound in the statue's hand remained until September 29, when it disappeared. On September 29, the day the wound on the statue disappeared, the sisters noticed the statue had now begun to "sweat", especially on the forehead and neck."

A second earthquake struck Mexico on 19th September, 2017, this time much closer to the home of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, almost like a pilgrimage path being traced out along the line of a seismic fault. This occurred on the feast day of Our Lady of La Salette, which ties us back into the significance of the apparition of Our Lady of Knock - which appeared at the exact moment of the ceremony of the canonical crowning of Our Lady of La Salette on 21st August, 1879. This earthquake took place exactly 32 years to the day after an 8.0 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico City on 19th September, 1985 (the year Sr. Lucia said the world was saved from nuclear war). On the same day as this second earthquake near Mexico City, a hurricane named Maria was battering the islands of Guadeloupe, the Virgin Islands (at a place called St. Croix or "Holy Cross"), the islands of St. Lucia and Dominica (after St. Dominic, who instituted the Holy Rosary), while another hurricane called Jose (Joseph) was still swirling about in the Atlantic. Hurricane Maria then made its way to Puerto Rico, and ominously threatened its capital San Juan.
As the Wikipedia article on the island of Guadeloupe states:

"Christopher Columbus named the island Santa María de Guadalupe in 1493 after the Virgin Mary, venerated in the Spanish town of Guadalupe, in Extremadura. Upon becoming a French colony, the Spanish name was retained though altered to French orthography and phonology."
(See here)

When the Blessed Virgin appeared to St. Juan Diego in 1531, she specifically stated that she wished to be referred to as Our Lady of Guadalupe - a title she was already being revered under in Extremadura, Spain. As the Wikipedia article on the original devotion of Our Lady of Guadalupe states:

The shrine [of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Extremadura] houses a statue reputed to have been carved by Luke the Evangelist and given to Saint Leander, archbishop of Seville, by Pope Gregory I. According to local legend, when Seville was taken by the Moors in 712, a group of priests fled northward and buried the statue in the hills near the Guadalupe River in Extremadura. At the beginning of the 14th century, the Virgin appeared one day to a humble cowboy named Gil Cordero who was searching for a missing animal in the mountains. Cordero claimed that the Virgin Mary had appeared to him and ordered him to ask priests to dig at the site of the apparition. Excavating priests rediscovered the hidden statue and built a small shrine around it which evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery.
(See here)

King Alfonso XI of Castile had ascribed the victory secured at the Battle of Río Salado over the Islamic Moors in 1340 to the intercession of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Extremadura, which was in effect a Spanish Lepanto moment. King Alfonso had visited the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Extremadura on several occasions, requesting the intercession of the Blessed Virgin there, and publically acknowledged that the victory was won due to this pious devotion. After the success of the Spanish and Portuguese armies at the Battle of Río Salado, the forces of Islam would never again be able to invade the Iberian peninsula, which would go on to enable the total defeat of Islam in Spain during the Reconquista - which was finally completed in the year 1492 - the exact year Columbus discovered America. A land which the Blessed Virgin would go on to claim for herself during her apparitions to St. Juan Diego under the title of Our Lady of Guadalupe, winning the conversion of almost an entire continent, and simultaneously vanquishing the rampant practice of human sacrifice.
A practice which was then reinstituted in 1973, prompting the Blessed Virgin to issue a dire warning to humanity during her apparitions at Akita in Japan - the land that first felt the scourge of nuclear warfare when the United States detonated atomic bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of the Second World War.

So the various earthquakes happening in these precise locations appear to be a further warning to America of the fate which lies in store for it if it continues on its path of devouring its own children by allowing the sin of abortion - a new ritual of human sacrifice deigned to allow the self-interests of ego-centric individuals to continue at the costs of the lives of their unborn offspring. As we noted in the previous post The Third Secret of Fatima and the Children of the Apocalypse, it is the destruction and corruption of innocent children which invokes the great millstone judgement to be meted out on the eschatological Babylon, when the huge mountain burning with fire is thrown into the sea. It will be worth covering some of this material again below.

The destruction of Babylon is symbolized by the angel throwing a huge millstone into the sea, which as well as being derived from the actions of the prophet Jeremiah in Jer 51, is also based on a passage in the Gospels, where Christ warns of the punishment that awaits those who attack the innocent:

Then a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying, “So will Babylon the great city be thrown down with violence, and will be found no more"...
(Rev 18:21)

"When you finish reading this book, tie a stone to it and cast it into the midst of the Euphrates, and say, ‘Thus shall Babylon sink, to rise no more, because of the disaster that I am bringing upon her, and they shall become exhausted.’”
(Jer 51:63-64)

“Whoever receives one such child in my name receives me, but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened around his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea."
(Matt 18:5-6)

The angel with the flaming sword, who is charged with protecting the Tree of Life, acts in response to the cries of the blood of innocent children from the ground for Divine justice. Jesus compares the innocence of children to His own believers, and uses this imagery as a warning against anyone who leads them into sin, causing them to fall away from the faith. Indeed the equation between the persecution of innocent children and Christians being led into apostasy is also used in Rev 12, which equates King Herod's slaughter of the innocents to the Devil sending out a flood in an attempt to sweep away the Woman Adorned with the Sun during the Great Apostasy, who represents the Church as well as the Virgin Mary:

The serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, to sweep her away with a flood. (Rev 12:15)

It is no coincidence then that the legalisation of abortion in the Western hemisphere soon followed the start of the modern apostasy, which found its roots in the cultural revolution of the 1960's. And as we have already discussed at some length elsewhere, the legalisation of abortion in Europe, with the implementation of the UK Abortion Act (which in turn would pave the way for the legalization of abortion in America, following Roe Vs Wade in 1973), directly coincided with the apparitions of Our Lady of Zeitoun in Egypt in April 1968 - the most widely witnessed Marian apparitions in human history. These appearances of Our Lady took place at a site traditionally associated with the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt to escape from King Herod's slaughter of the Holy Innocents, and given the apocalyptic nature of modern Church approved apparitions, they bear an incredible parallel to the vision of the flight of the Woman Adorned with the Sun into the desert in Rev 12. The implication here is that apostasy and abortion go hand-in-hand, and that a nation which falls away from the faith will ultimately begin to devour its own young - an unspeakable transgression which calls down vengeance from heaven.

As of today, on 22nd September, 2017, the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has threatened to respond to President Donald Trump's threats to destroy his country by launching a nuclear missile into the Pacific Ocean as a "warning shot" - a brazen act which, if carried out, could potentially spill over into a full-scale nuclear conflict. As the BBC news website states:

The prospect of a hydrogen bomb being tested in the Pacific raises a terrifying spectre - one that North Korea-watchers have mulled for some time, but which did not seem realistic until this year.
Kim Jong-un could conduct an atmospheric nuclear detonation in the Pacific Ocean.
There are two mechanisms for a test like this. One is for Kim Jong-un to mount the nuclear device he showed the world before his 3 September nuclear test and fire it over Japan, into the Pacific Ocean, and demonstrate a credible thermonuclear capability.
Presumably, witnessing this feat would "tame" Trump into accepting the "equilibrium" that North Korea alluded to earlier this week - a state of stable nuclear deterrence.
Given the inadequacy of existing US and Japanese ballistic missile defence systems, it is far from a sure thing that such a test could be intercepted.
The risks are immense. Civil aviators and mariners in the target area may perish, given that North Korea does not offer international warning of its missile launch plans - unlike other states that routinely test ballistic missiles.
The environmental damage and fallout could be catastrophic. Moreover, should the missile fail over Japan - or prematurely detonate - the consequences would effectively guarantee a nuclear war in retaliation.
(See here)

The world is now standing on a precipice, being threatened with the fire which issues forth from the flaming sword held by the angel of the Third Secret. We can now only be spared through the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The fact that the angel with the flaming sword is seen calling out three times for the repentance of humanity in the midst of these trials of the Church appears to symbolise three separate periods in which the world would be spared from nuclear destruction to allow for a period of conversion and penance. We already know that the world was brought back from the brink of nuclear self-annihilation during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, and Sr. Lucia herself said that the world was spared a nuclear war that would have broken out in 1985 by the consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1984 (leading to the downfall of the Soviet Union). As Cardinal Ratzinger famously stated in his theological commentary in The Message of Fatima:

The angel with the flaming sword on the left of the Mother of God recalls similar images in the Book of Revelation. This represents the threat of judgement which looms over the world. Today the prospect that the world might be reduced to ashes by a sea of fire no longer seems pure fantasy: man himself, with his inventions, has forged the flaming sword. The vision then shows the power which stands opposed to the force of destruction—the splendour of the Mother of God and, stemming from this in a certain way, the summons to penance.

We must now fervently pray that the Mother of God will intercede for us in a last act of salvation to stay the hand of the angel with the flaming sword, in order to allow for a period of conversion and penance before we undergo the trial of the Antichrist.

"...in the plans of the Divine Providence, when God is going to chastise the world He always first exhausts all other remedies. When He sees that the world pays no attention whatsoever, then, as we say in our imperfect way of talking, with a certain fear He presents us the last means of salvation, His Blessed Mother.

If we despise and reject this last means, Heaven will no longer pardon us, because we will have committed a sin that the Gospel calls a sin against the Holy Spirit. This sin consists in openly rejecting – with full knowledge and will – the salvation that is put in our hands."
(Sr Lucia to Fr. Fuentes, 1957)






Thursday, 7 September 2017

Our Lady of Revelation and the Newly Published Diaries of Bruno Cornacchiola




It has only been just over two weeks since the occurrence of the Great American Eclipse at the start of St. Michael's Lent, and we have already experienced a whole plethora of foreboding events. First we had the earthquake at Ischia occurring just nine minutes after the eclipse ended on US soil, which just so happens to be the site of alleged Marian apparitions which foretell the destruction of New York City in conjunction with visions of volcanic eruptions and an entire island sinking into the sea. This earthquake destroyed the Church of St. Michael (known locally as the "Church of Purgatory"), which was right next to the alleged apparition site at Zaro in Ischia. Four days later, we had the destruction wrought by Hurricane Harvey, which was the most powerful hurricane in a decade to strike the American coast. This was followed in quick succession by North Korea's hydrogen bomb test on Sept 4th, amidst several other provocations, accompanied by a threat of an EMP attack made by its leader Kim Jong-un. Since 2nd Sept, there has been an ongoing earthquake swarm in Idaho centred on Soda Springs - a location immediately adjacent to the path of totality, and just south of the caldera of the Yellowstone supervolcano. The largest earthquake measured here was 5.3 on the Richer scale, and there are concerns of a larger quake to come. Now we have the threat of Hurricane Irma bearing down on the coast of Florida which is currently Category 5, followed by other potential threats from Hurricane Jose and Hurricane Katia.

While all of this has been taking place on the ground, the night skies have been illuminated by another occurrence of the Northern Lights, following a powerful geomagnetic storm on 6th September, 2017. It is a well-known fact that Sr. Lucia had linked the Great Aurora of 1938 with Our Lady's words in the Second Secret, concerning the beginning of World War II:

"When you see a night illumined by an unknown light, know that this is the great sign given you by God that he is about to punish the world for its crimes, by means of war, famine, and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father."

Scanning through the various reactions on social media, the dramatic uptick of significant events that has already taken place since the eclipse and the start of St. Michael's Lent has not went by unnoticed. In the post The Sign of Jonah and the Unbinding of Satan, we had already noted that it was a chain of catastrophic events centred around the timing of a total solar eclipse over the site of ancient Nineveh that had ripened the inhabitants' receptiveness to the words of the Prophet Jonah, causing them to repent en masse. In light of this combination of recent events, the idea that America has entered into a 40-day period of trial from the date of the eclipse to the feast of Yom Kippur/Michaelmas now no longer seems so far-fetched.


As a result of recent events concerning the timing of the Great American Eclipse and the earthquake at Ischia, I have recently returned to researching the apparition of Our Lady of Revelation to Bruno Cornacchiola in 1947, which figures prominently in the alleged apparitions at Zaro, Ischia. Upon doing so, I have discovered that the private diaries of Bruno Cornacchiola were published for the first time last year in a book called Il Veggente: Il Segreto della Tre Fontane, by the Italian journalist Saverio Gaeta (Salani, 2016). This work has yet to be translated into English, but it has already generated some intense interest in the Italian media. In his review of this book for Vatican Insider here, Andrea Torneilli highlights the following important passage from Bruno's diary - a personal journal which he was apparently instructed to keep by Our Lady herself:

"From the east a strong people, far away from God, will strike a tremendous attack, and break the sacred and sacred things."

Judging from Torneilli's review, it is difficult to determine whether if the above passage from Bruno Cornacchiola's diaries refers to the events of 9/11, or some other future event. While Torneilli notes that Our Lady of Revelation made repeated appearances to Bruno after the initial apparition in 1947, and that the attacks on the World Trade Center were among the events prophesied, it is unclear if it is the above words of Our Lady that have been interpreted as a reference to 9/11 itself, or if it concerns another event yet to happen. Without knowing the full background context, it is tempting to see a possible connection here with the current threat stemming from North Korea.

Although the apparition of Our Lady of Revelation at Tre Fontane has yet to receive full formal approval, it is widely recognized as authentic by several influential figures within the Church, including Pope Pius XII, and Pope St. John Paul II, who renamed the shrine at Tre Fontane "St. Mary of the Third Millennium at the Three Fountains" in 1997. The devotion to Our Lady of Revelation is itself actively encouraged by the Church, and overall, its status is comparable in scope to the apparition of Our Lady of Knock. It is beyond the scope of this article to go into the full details of the events behind the apparition of the Blessed Virgin at Tre Fontane. If anyone needs further details, there is plenty of other literature dealing with this subject elsewhere, such as this detailed article here at the Theotokos website. It should suffice to state that the Blessed Mother appeared to Bruno Cornacchiola in order to prevent him from assassinating Pope Pius XII. The fact that the Blessed Virgin chose the site of Tre Fontane in order to intervene in Bruno's assassination attempt is highly symbolic in itself, as this was the location of the martyrdom of St. Paul, whose death along with that of St. Peter during the Neroian persecution, foreshadows the martyrdom of the Two Witnesses during the final Passover of the Church under the Antichrist.

The diaries contain various other intriguing prophecies made by Our Lady of Revelation, which as we will dissect in more detail in a future post, are incredibly similar to the words of Sr. Lucia concerning the state of the Church during her interview with Fr. Fuentes, which in turn can be compared to the prophecies of St. Hildgard of Bingen. For now, one of the most striking aspects of this previously unpublished portion of the messages given to Bruno Cornacchiola, is the fact that they confirm my hypothesis concerning the current age of the Church being equated with the period of the unbinding of Satan at the end of the Millennium in Rev 20.


"The entire Church will undergo a tremendous trial, to clean up the mass of rotten flesh that has infiltrated into Her ministers, in particular among the Orders of poverty: a moral trial, a spiritual trial. For the time indicated in the heavenly books, priests and faithful will be placed at a perilous turning-point in the world of the lost, which will rush to the assault with whichever means: false ideologies and theologies! Supplication from both parts, the faithful and the unfaithful, will be made according to the trials. I, among you the elect, with Christ as Our Captain, will fight for you […] The wrath of Satan is no longer restrained; the Spirit of God is withdrawn from the earth, the Church will be left a widow, behold the funeral drape, She will be left to the mercy of the world. Children, become saints and sanctify yourselves more, always love each other. […] Marshal yourselves under the banner of Christ. Working in this way, you will see the fruits of victory in the awakening of consciences to the good; despite being in evil, you will see, through your cooperative and efficacious help, sinners converted and the Fold filled up with saved souls."
(The Virgin of the Revelation to Bruno Cornacchiola, the 12th of April at the Tre Fontane. Trans. by Francesca Romana at Rorate Caeli, here. Originally found in Gaeta, S. Il Veggente: Il Segreto della Tre Fontane, pp81-86)


This mention of the wrath of the Devil no longer being restrained, made by Our Lady in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, is further confirmation that the prophetic vision of Pope Leo XIII is indeed related the short time of Satan described in Rev 20.

There are various other interesting bits of information which can be gleaned from Torneilli's review in Vatican Insider. Below is a rough translation of an extract of the book covered by Torneilli:

Several years later, on 26 January 1996, other references to threats against the Vatican: "How many dreams do you have? This night I saw St. Peter's Basilica, go on fire, and I said, 'Why is it being burned? A voice says, 'It is purifying fire to make it understand that it is the only force of life and love and it is not understood; God purifies everything in order to make everyone understand the way of truth for life. " Dear Mother, you were that voice, I recognized it. " On, March 3, 2000, in the Great Jubilee, in one of the last messages (he would die the following year) - Cornacchiola writes: "Today I had a very bad vision that made me cry. I saw a lot of blood flowing in St. Peter's, all out with the staircases and columns around and the two fountains. Well, I saw the blood drain and [shouts of?]: 'Death to the leaders!' I had a bad feeling for the Pope and others."


There is an extraordinary parallel in this vision of an attack on St. Peter's Basilica to one of the most noteworthy of the messages to emanate from the alleged apparitions at Ischia, made some time before the details found in these diaries came to light; or indeed before the current division in the Church became so pronounced.

"Pray a lot for Pope Francis, hard times await him..."

"My daughter, there will be in St. Peter's a serious and tremendous division: see the walls are stained with blood, the blood of the martyrs; there will be an uproar. If you do not pray, all of this will happen very soon.

"The dome of St. Peter's was full of smoke. Peoples in turmoil gathered in St. Peter's, people in riot. There were races that clashed with each other. It was dark, there was no light, many fought and many were lying on the ground lifeless. The dragon passed among the corpses and laughed; He was very happy. People were trying to talk to each other, but they don't understand each other. The earth was shaking, trembling all over
."
(Message to Angela, 26th June, 2014)

These words are all the more chilling in light of the recent call to arms against the Vatican issued by ISIS in late August...


Monday, 28 August 2017

The Canary Islands and the Seven Burning Mountains of Enoch

A 17th century icon of Elijah and Enoch displayed in the Historic Museum, Sanok, Poland


In light of recent events, I thought that it would be a good time to post a sub-chapter of my book Unveiling the Apocalypse: The Final Passover of the Church for all to read. I think this offers definitive proof that the "great mountain, burning with fire" described in Rev 8:8 is located in the Canary Islands. This sub-chapter continues on from a portion of the book which notes that the Apocalypse draws inspiration from the myth of Atlantis to describe the fate of the eschatological world power referred to as "Babylon":

The allusions to the myth of Atlantis in the Apocalypse goes much further than this however.  We have already noted how Babylon’s attribute of being set upon seven hills was originally intended to connect it with Imperial Rome in the preterist layer of interpretation, and that the use of this epithet identifies it as the current dominant world power.  However, the primary inspiration for the seven hills upon which the prostitute is seated is found in the seven burning mountains of the Book of Enoch, which are described as being situated in a location at the ends of the earth which has been reserved as a prison for the fallen angels:

I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains, and to me, when I inquired regarding them, the angel said: “This place is the end of heaven and earth: this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven”.  (1Enoc 18:13-14)

The Book of Enoch is thought to have been written sometime between the 2nd-1st centuries BC, and while it was never included in the Christian canon, its content was well known to Jews living at the time of Christ.  As the noted Enochian specialist R.H. Charles points out: “1Enoch has had more
 influence on the New Testament than has any other apocryphal or pseudepigraphic work”.  The Book of Enoch is explicitly quoted in the Epistle of St. Jude, and clear allusions to Enochian material are made in 1Pet 3:19-20 and 2Pet 2:4-5.  Its influence is also apparent in many other places throughout the New Testament, and as Charles demonstrates, the author of the Apocalypse uses material found in the Book of Enoch to formulate many of its key phrases. So the Book of Revelation shows a clear dependence on this influential apocalyptic text, and as we shall discuss in more detail in a later chapter, the seven stars that Christ holds in his hand in Rev 1:16-20, which are described as “the keys to Death and Hades”, can only fully be understood in light of material which can be traced back to St. Jude’s use of the Book of Enoch in his epistle.  

Over the course of the first three centuries of the Early Church, the Book of Enoch was regarded as authoritative by several Early Church Fathers, including St. Justin Martyr, St. Irenaeus, St. Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Tertullian.  However, it was composed too late to have been included in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) version of the Old Testament where the Deuterocanonical works are found, and its inclusion in the Hebrew canon was suppressed by the Jewish Council of Jamnia (Yavneh) circa 90AD. Tertullian attributed the rejection of the Book of Enoch by the Council of Jamnia to its content of several prophecies pointing to Christ.  By the 4th century AD, when the Christian canon was finally being codified, the Book of Enoch fell out of favour in the Early Church because of a perceived (but misplaced) association with the plethora of Gnostic texts that were by then in wide circulation, and it subsequently fell into almost complete obscurity.  Indeed, St. Jerome noted that the Epistle of St. Jude itself was even called into question due to its quotation of the Book of Enoch.   Its claims to antediluvian antiquity, while initially accepted by figures such as St. Irenaeus and Tertullian, were later regarded as being too fantastical, and gave rise to some misgivings that this book was spurious in nature.  However, the genre of the Book of Enoch itself was overlooked (as it still is in some circles today), and many commentators failed to appreciate that instead of trying to mislead its audience into believing that it was actually the work of an antediluvian prophet, the author used this figure as a literary device in order to communicate several key prophecies which held eschatological import.  As the author himself explicitly states at the beginning of his work, the visions that he was presented with took the form of a parable which is addressed to a remote generation living during the tribulation of the end of days:

The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said--Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is for to come.  (1Enoc 1:1-2)

Writing in the 2nd-1st centuries BC, the author was shown a vision of himself assuming the role of the Prophet Enoch, which was used to explain the unfolding of future events through the medium of a prophetic parable; and like the sealed words of the Book of Daniel, the significance of this vision was only meant to be fully realised towards the end of the world.  The style in which the Book of Enoch presented itself led to these words becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy, and as a result of a negative trend in the 4th-5th centuries AD, the Book of Enoch totally disappeared from view in the Western Church, until it was eventually rediscovered in Abyssinia by the explorer James Bruce, who arrived back in Europe with three copies of the Ethiopic version of the text in 1773. So while this writing was excluded from the canon during the formative years of the Early Church, and does not have the inerrant status of Sacred Scripture, the Book of Enoch was certainly considered to be an authoritative text by several writers of the New Testament itself, and as such, some of its content must be regarded as being genuinely prophetic in nature.  Indeed, given the fact that the Book of Enoch provides us with the key to interpreting the various portions of Scripture which use its material as their primary source, it becomes apparent that this writing is one of the most important extrabiblical texts when it comes to understanding the eschatology of the New Testament. As such, the portion of the Book of Enoch which mentions seven burning mountains in relation to the location of the place of the imprisonment of the fallen angels holds considerable value for unravelling the true meaning of the imagery of the harlot seated upon seven hills in the Apocalypse.  This section of the Book of Enoch is deeply influenced by the story of the binding of the Titans in Tartarus detailed in Greek mythology.  Indeed, Tartarus itself is explicitly referenced over the course of the next two chapters, where we are told that these fallen angels are under the subjugation of the Archangel Uriel:

Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is over the world and over Tartarus.  (1Enoc 20:2)

The seven burning mountains that stand at the end of the earth, which are identified with the location of Tartarus, singles out the particular fate of the Titan Atlas.  Atlas was one of the chief leaders of the Titans during the war against the Olympians, and was given the special punishment of being condemned to stand at the ends of the earth in the far west of the known world, in order to hold up the sky for eternity at the gates of Tartarus.  He was identified with the Atlas Mountain range in northwest Africa, and gave his name to the Atlantic Ocean (which means “sea of Atlas”) and Atlantis itself (which means “island of Atlas”).  The Titan Atlas features in the eleventh labour of Hercules, when the fabled hero was tasked to steal the golden apples from Hera’s orchard in the Garden of the Hesperides, which were said to grant immortality once eaten.  On his way to Garden of the Hesperides, Hercules was said to have encountered Atlas standing at the ends of the earth, and offered to hold up the sky to relieve him for a while, if he would fetch the apples for him in return.  There are some intriguing parallels here with the Tree of Life and the Garden of Eden, especially given the fact that the tree which bore the golden apples of immortality was guarded by the serpent-like dragon Ladon, which was the Greek equivalent of the seven-headed water dragon Lotan in Canaanite mythology.  The Book of Enoch bears a striking resemblance to this story, in its depiction of the path to the Garden of Eden being guarded by Leviathan and Behemoth:

And on that day were two monsters parted, a female monster named Leviathan, to dwell in the abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Dûidâin, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first man whom the Lord of Spirits created. And I besought the other angel that he should show me the might of those monsters, how they were parted on one day and cast, the one into the abysses of the sea, and the other unto the dry land of the wilderness. And he said to me: ‘Thou son of man, herein thou dost seek to know what is hidden.’ (1Enoc 60:7-10)

According to Greek mythology, Atlas was the father of the Hesperides, the nymphs of the evening who tended an Eden-like garden in the far western corner of the world at the edge of the world ocean (Oceanus), beyond the Pillars of Heracles and at the end of the Atlas Mountain range.  The Pillars of Hercules were identified with the Rock of Gibraltar and Jebel Musa, opposing mountainous peaks standing on either side of the closest point between Spain and Morocco, across the straits of Gibraltar, and was considered to be the place where Atlas stood in order to hold up the sky.  The Garden of the Hesperides was closely associated with the realm of Elysium, which according to the Greek poet Homer, was found at this same location, at the western edge of the earth.  By the time of the poet Hesiod, Elysium was connected with the semi-mythical Isles of the Blessed, otherwise known as the Fortunate Isles, or the White Isle, which were believed to be ruled over either by the king of the Titans, Cronos, or Rhadamanthys, the judge of the dead in the Underworld.  The Fortunate Isles were considered to be the abode of the heroic dead, who were granted access to the White Isle after being reincarnated on the fields of Elysium three times.  Elysium itself was thought to be a winterless paradise adjacent to the White Isle, on the border of Hades:

And they live untouched by sorrow in the Islands of the Blessed along the shore of deep swirling Okeanos, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Kronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory.
(Hesiod, Works and Days)

The Isles of the Blessed were most commonly associated with the Canary Islands during the classical period, since their description in Greek mythology points towards this exact                              location, and the minutiae of the details provided in various sources match the climate and topography of this archipelago.  The seafaring Greeks and Phoenicians were believed to have explored at least as far as the Canary Islands, and their knowledge of this location is thought to have been integrated into their respective mythologies.  The Canaries are the first island chain beyond the Pillars of Hercules that any Greek explorers would have stumbled across, especially if they had kept close to the coast of North Africa for safety and to replenish much-needed provisions.  Indeed, the Canary Islands was mostly likely be the furthest point along the North African coast that ancient seafarers would have ventured, since the punishing conditions of the Sahara Desert lay immediately to the south.  As such, the White Isle ruled over by Cronos at the far edge of the western world is usually identified with Mount Teide in Tenerife, a high volcano which is often capped with snow. (On an interesting side note, Mount Teide is the main symbol of the island of Tenerife itself, and somewhat ominously, its coat of arms of depicts the Archangel Michael appearing over the volcano, which is shown spewing forth flames.)  The ancient Greek historian Strabo fleshes out some detail on the account of the Isles of the Blessed given in Homer’s Odyssey, and not only equated it with the Garden of the Hesperides, but also explicitly identified it as being in the exact location of the Canary Islands:

[Homer was] informed through his inquiries of so many expeditions to the outermost parts of Iberia, and learning by hearsay about the wealth and the other good attributes of the country (for the Phoenicians were making these facts known), in fancy placed the abode of the blest there, and also the Elysian Plain, where Proteus says Menelaus will go and make his home: “But the deathless gods will escort thee to the Elysian Plain and the ends of the earth, where is Rhadamanthys of the fair hair, where life is easiest. No snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor ever any rain; but always Oceanus sendeth forth the breezes of clear-blowing Zephyrus.” For both the pure air and the gentle breezes of Zephyrus properly belong to this country, since the country is not only in the west but also warm; and the phrase “at the ends of the earth” properly belongs to it, where Hades has been “mythically placed,” as we say. And Homer’s citing of Rhadamanthys suggests the region that is near Minos, concerning whom he says: “There it was I saw Minos, glorious son of Zeus, holding a golden sceptre, rendering decisions to the dead.” Furthermore, the poets who came after Homer keep dinning into our ears similar stories: the expedition of Heracles in quest of the kine of Geryon and likewise the expedition which he made in quest of the golden apples of the Hesperides — even calling by name certain Isles of the Blest, which, as we know, are still now pointed out, not very far from the headlands of Maurusia [Morocco] that lie opposite to Gades [Cadiz].
(Strabo, Geography III:2.13)

It is evident that the story of the Fortunate Isles was conflated with the myth of Atlantis, and that the lines between this location are blurred with that of Tartarus, the place the Titans were kept in bondage.  Both Tartarus and the Isles of the Blessed were considered to be under the dominion of the Titan Cronos, who lends his name to one of the seven classical planets, since his direct equivalent in the Roman pantheon was the god Saturn.  The Book of Enoch explicitly states the seven burning mountains also represent seven stars:

And there I saw seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then I said: ‘For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither?’  Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: ‘Enoch, why dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth? These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years, the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.’  (1Enoc 21:3-6)

According to Plato, as well as being the appellation of a Titan, Atlas was also the name of the first of the ten kings of Atlantis, who were five sets of twins born to the god Poseidon – which is highly reminiscent of the ten kings represented by the ten horns of the Beast of Revelation.  In a further connection to the imagery of the Beast of the Apocalypse, the island of Atlantis itself was also said to have been divided into seven interconnecting circles:

And of these, some refer the analysis to the fixed stars and planets: so that they assume the Athenians as analogous to the fixed stars, but the Atlantics to the planets. They likewise say, that these stars fight on account of the opposition in their circulation, but that the fixed stars vanquish the planets on account of the one convolution of the world. Of this opinion, therefore, is the illustrious Amelius, who vehemently contends that this must be the case, because it is clearly said in the Critias, that the Atlantic island was divided into seven circles.
(Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, Book 1)

So in a direct parallel to the whore of Babylon riding the Beast with seven heads and ten horns, Atlantis was a land divided into seven parts, ruled by ten kings.  The tale of Atlantis has also been associated with the now lost harbour city of Tartessos, which was also said to be located somewhere beyond the Pillars of Hercules, most likely on the Iberian Peninsula itself, near Cadiz. Even though the original site of the city of Tartessos remains unknown, there is an abundance of archaeological evidence which confirms the existence of a wealthy Tartessian culture in southern Spain.  Some historians believe that Tartessos was destroyed by a tsunami, and there have been convincing attempts to identify it with the biblical city of Tarshish, which had sea trade links with ancient Phoenicia and Israel.  Although it is extremely unlikely that the fate of Tartessos provided the inspiration for the myth of Atlantis, since this city only disappeared from historical record around the 5th century BC – which is much too late to have influenced the development of this story, which was by then already in wide circulation.  But it is worth noting that the name Tartessos is etymologically similar to Tartarus itself, which may suggest that this city may have derived its name from its proximity to the traditional location of the Underworld.  In Semitic thought, Tartarus was equated with the Abyss which held the primeval waters beneath the earth, which burst forth from the deep during the time of Noah’s Flood:

In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened.  (Gen 7:11)

The Book of Enoch conflates the story of the Titans with that of the fallen Watchers – the rebellious angels who fathered the race of giants known as the Nephilim, which is mentioned immediately before the Flood narrative in Gen 6:

When man began to multiply on the face of the land and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of man were attractive. And they took as their wives any they chose. Then the LORD said, “My Spirit shall not abide in man forever, for he is flesh: his days shall be 120 years.” The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of man and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men who were of old, the men of renown.  (Gen 6:1-4)

According to the Book of Enoch, the fallen Watchers were confined at the end of the earth amidst seven burning mountains, and the place of their imprisonment was associated with the location from which the fountains of the deep poured forth during the time of the Flood:

And after that he showed me the angels of punishment who are prepared to come and let loose all the powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order to bring judgement and destruction on all who abide and dwell on the earth. And the Lord of Spirits gave commandment to the angels who were going forth, that they should not cause the waters to rise but should hold them in check; for those angels were over the powers of the waters.  (1Enoc 66)

And He will imprison those angels, who have shown unrighteousness, in that burning valley which my grandfather Enoch had formerly shown to me in the west among the mountains of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin. And I saw that valley in which there was a great convulsion and a convulsion of the waters. And when all this took place, from that fiery molten metal and from the convulsion thereof in that place, there was produced a smell of sulphur, and it was connected with those waters, and that valley of the angels who had led astray mankind burned beneath that land. And through its valleys proceed streams of fire, where these angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell upon the earth.  (1Enoc 67:4-7)

Just as the Garden of the Hesperides was home to the golden apples of immortality, the Book of Enoch states that the seven burning mountains lie at the entrance to the location of the Tree of Life, which is protected by the angel with the flaming sword:

And from thence I went to another place of the earth, and he showed me a mountain range of fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones thereof were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever: and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: ‘How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.’ Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader. And he said unto me: ‘Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree, and why dost thou wish to learn the truth?’ Then I answered him saying: ‘I wish to know about everything, but especially about this tree.’ And he answered saying: ‘This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring everything to its consummation for ever.  (1Enoc 24; 25:1-4)

So the setting of the seven burning mountains in the Book of Enoch appears to act as some sort of nexus between heaven and hell, which is the location of both the entrance to the Abyss and the way to the Tree of Life itself.  This is somewhat similar to the ancient Greek understanding of the afterlife, where the gateway to the fields of Elysium and Tartarus are both found at the entrance to the Underworld, which lies in the west at the ends of the earth, beyond the Pillars of Hercules.  This may reflect the fact that as well as being home to the original paradise, the Garden of Eden was also the location of Satan’s primordial fall from grace as well as the Fall of Man:

You were the signet of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, sardius, topaz, and diamond, beryl, onyx, and jasper, sapphire, emerald, and carbuncle; and crafted in gold were your settings and your engravings. On the day that you were created they were prepared. You were an anointed guardian cherub. I placed you; you were on the holy mountain of God; in the midst of the stones of fire you walked. You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created, till unrighteousness was found in you. In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence in your midst, and you sinned; so I cast you as a profane thing from the mountain of God, and I destroyed you, O guardian cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.  (Ezek 28:12-16)

In his commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, the neo-Platonic philosopher Proclus Lycaeus mentions the existence of “seven islands sacred to Persephone” located in the “outer sea” (the Atlantic Ocean), whose inhabitants had passed down their ancestors’ knowledge of Atlantis:

That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Hades, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica. 
(Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, p. 117.10–30, trans. Taylor, Nesselrath.)

Persephone was the queen of the Underworld, and the fact that these seven islands in the Atlantic were said to be dedicated to her further suggests that this location is in some way associated with the entrance to Hades.  According to Greek lore, the goddess Persephone was the subject of the affections of Hades, who wanted to take her for his spouse and resolved to drag her off into the Underworld by bursting through the earth, creating a rift between worlds.  The location of the abduction of Persephone was thus considered to be an entrance to the Underworld itself.  Adherents of the Eleusinian mystery cults who sought secret knowledge about how to gain passage to the Isles of the Blessed followed initiation rites dedicated to Persephone.  As we can see from its borrowing of Hellenistic terminology, the visions described Book of Enoch closely follows the Greek concept of Tartarus and the Fortunate Isles in describing the vicinity of the seven burning mountains as the abode of both of the Tree of Life and the Abyss.  In chapter 23 of the Book of Enoch, we discover that the seven burning mountains which stand at the location where the fallen Watchers are bound in the Abyss are also situated in the exact same place as Elysium and the Isles of the Blessed – at the western edge of the known world:

From thence I went to another place to the west of the ends of the earth. And I saw a burning fire which ran without resting, and paused not from its course day or night but ran regularly. And I asked saying: ‘What is this which rests not?’ Then Raguel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me and said unto me: ‘This course of fire which thou hast seen is the fire in the west which persecutes all the luminaries of heaven.’  (1Enoc 23) 

Immediately after seeing the location where the fallen angels were imprisoned in the west at the end of the earth, the author of the Book of Enoch once again describes the seven burning mountains in chapter 24, only this time he goes on to state that it is also where the Tree of Life is located.  Further details are provided about the location of Tartarus in Enoc 67, where we are told that as well as being situated in the far west beyond a “great valley” (which should probably be equated with the Pillars of Hercules), it also lies near mountains containing precious metals which are usually associated with the land of Tarshish, which is usually identified with Tartessos:

And He will imprison those angels, who have shown unrighteousness, in that burning valley which my grandfather Enoch had formerly shown to me in the west among the mountains of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin.  (1Enoc 67:4)   In the Bible, Tarshish is described as a faraway land at the opposite end of the Mediterranean Sea, possessing great mineral wealth containing rare metals that were held in great value in the ancient Levant, and was a primary exporter of the exact same materials mentioned above – gold, silver, iron, tin and “soft metal” or lead: Tarshish did business with you because of your great wealth of every kind; silver, iron, tin, and lead they exchanged for your wares.  (Ezek 27:12)

The Ancient Greek historian Ephorus described the land of Tartessos as being rich in some of these same commodities, stating that there was “a very prosperous market called Tartessos, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands”. (Ephorus of Cyme, cited in Freeman, P.M. “Ancillary Study: Ancient References to Tartessos”, Celtic from the West, (Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2010) p. 322.)  And it can be attested from the archaeological evidence that the Tartessian culture in the Southern Iberian Peninsula was indeed extremely rich in these very mineral deposits, as well as proof of their trade links with ancient Phoenicia.   So judging from the internal evidence, we can establish that the seven burning mountains seen in the Book of Enoch not only lay at a point in the far west of the known world, but also they were situated near the “mountains of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin” that was associated with the land of Tartessos/Tarshish in the Iberian Peninsula.  In chapter 76 of the Book of Enoch, we are provided with the further detail that the            seven burning mountains are also seven islands located in the “great sea” (which is one and the same as Oceanus/the Atlantic Ocean):

Seven great islands I saw in the sea and on the earth. Seven in the great sea.  (1Enoc 76:8)

Given that the position of these islands is described as being in the Atlantic, at the far west of the known world near the site of Tarshish/Tartessos, combined with the fact that they are also clearly identified with the location of Tartarus and the Isles of the Blessed, we can firmly establish that these seven burning mountains are one and the same as the seven volcanic islands of the Canary archipelago – Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro.  One of which, the Apocalypse tells us will be thrown into the sea in order to bring about the destruction of “Babylon”.  The waste wilderness of Dûidâin, which Enoc 60:8 states lies to the east of the garden should therefore be equated with the Sahara Desert, which lies to the immediate east of the Canary Islands.  It is of immense significance then that the Book of Enoch identifies these seven volcanic islands with the site of the Tree of Life, and also as the location of the waters of the Abyss, which gushed forth to inundate the earth during the Flood. The Book of Enoch also has a clear influence on the Second Epistle of St. Peter, where we find that the only place in the New Testament which mentions the word Tartarus is similarly associated with Noah’s Flood:

For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into [Tartarus] and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment; if he did not spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, when he brought a flood upon the world of the ungodly; if by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them
to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly; and if he rescued righteous Lot, greatly distressed by the sensual conduct of the wicked (for as that righteous man lived among them day after day, he was tormenting his righteous soul over their lawless deeds that he saw and heard); then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment, and especially those who indulge in the lust of defiling passion and despise authority. 
(2 Pet 2:4-10)

As we have already seen, chapters 66-67 of the Book of Enoch describe how the angels of punishment who reside in the Abyss unleashed “all the powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order to bring judgement and destruction on all who abide and dwell on the earth” during the Flood.  However, the above passage also contains an eschatological dimension related to the “day of judgement”, and closely follows the formula outlined in the Gospel of Luke:

Just as it was in the days of Noah, so will it be in the days of the Son of Man. They were eating and drinking and marrying and being given in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all. Likewise, just as it was in the days of Lot—they were eating and drinking, buying and selling, planting and building, but on the day when Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained from heaven and destroyed them all—so will it be on the day when the Son of Man is revealed.  (Luke 17:26-30)

So the Second Petrine Epistle provides us with a bridging connection between this passage in Luke’s Gospel and the Book of Enoch, which states that the location of the imprisonment of the fallen Watchers is the source of the world’s chastisement by flood:

I saw that valley in which there was a great convulsion and a convulsion of the waters. And when all this took place, from that fiery molten metal and from the convulsion thereof in that place, there was produced a smell of sulphur, and it was connected with those waters, and that valley of the angels who had led astray mankind burned beneath that land. And through its valleys proceed streams of fire, where these angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell upon the earth.  
(1Enoc 67:5-7)

Only in the Gospel of Luke, we are told that these events will once again be played out at the end of time.  While the promise of the Noahide Covenant remains in force, and God will never again fully destroy the world by flood (Gen 9:11), there will be another major inundation which takes place towards the end of the world which will destroy the prevailing world power before the rise to power of the Antichrist.  After this, the earth will finally be consumed in flames, just as Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by fire and brimstone raining down from heaven.  So according to the formula set down in the Gospel of Luke, the final chastisement of humanity is comprised of two parts, and while the events of the Great Chastisement are set in motion by a massive flood, the sins of the world will only finally be cleansed through a baptism of fire.  We should note here that the Book of Enoch does not necessarily identify the Canary Islands as the actual site of the original Garden of Eden however, since rather curiously, it describes the location of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil as lying in another garden in the east:

And beyond these, I went afar to the east, and I saw another place, a valley full of water. And therein there was a tree, the colour of fragrant trees such as the mastic. And on the sides of those valleys I saw fragrant cinnamon. And beyond these I proceeded to the east. And I saw other mountains, and amongst them were groves of trees, and there flowed forth from them nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe trees, and all the trees were full of stacte, being like almond-trees. 3. And when one burnt it, it smelt sweeter than any fragrant odour. And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper. And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotîêl. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness, and saw beyond those trees many large trees growing there and of goodly fragrance, large, very beautiful and glorious, and the tree of wisdom whereof they eat and know great wisdom.  (1Enoc 30-31, 32:1-3)

So while the Book of Enoch states that the entrance to the Underworld and the way to the Tree of Life lies in the far west, the location of the original Garden of Eden and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil is placed at some point in the east.  It would thus appear that by placing the way to the Tree of Life among the seven volcanic islands of the Canary archipelago, the Book of Enoch highlights that this location is of a prophetic, eschatological concern, rather than dealing with actual historical realities.  By guiding us towards a certain prophetic truth which was tapped into by Greek myths about the Isles of the Blessed and the entrance to the Underworld, the Book of Enoch
emphasizes the importance of this location in relation to the significance of the way to the Tree of Life and the angel with the flaming sword who stands guard to protect it. It was obviously almost impossible for the Apocalypse to explicitly identify America as the eschatological world empire known as Babylon, since it was written well over a thousand years before its discovery by Christopher Columbus in 1492.  But by closely identifying Babylon with the myth of Atlantis, the Book of Revelation provides us with the exact location of this future world empire.  This nation, which is set to be destroyed in the sea just like the fabled Atlantis, is a continent which lies beyond the pillars of Hercules at “a distant point in the Atlantic Ocean”, and in size it is “larger than Libya and Asia together”.  As we can see from the original account of the myth of Atlantis given in Plato’s Timaeus, this is an almost exact description of the location and size of America itself:

For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, ‘the pillars of Heracles,’ there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent.
(Plato, Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation, Loeb Classical Library)

By inviting us to compare the seven heads of the Beast on which the harlot is seated to the seven burning mountains seen in the Book of Enoch, the Apocalypse not only provides us with the exact location where judgment would be meted out on “Babylon”, but also the precise form this judgment will take.  Now that we have narrowed down the location of the “great mountain, burning with fire” described in Rev 8:8 to one of the seven volcanic islands in the Canary Islands, we can safely identify the eschatological “Babylon” as the world superpower which lies within the boundaries of the Atlantic basin that would be the most affected by a lateral volcanic collapse in this area of the world, which once again, can only be America.

(Unveiling the Apocalypse: The Final Passover of the Church, pp304-325)